why is blockchain changing how wework online区块链和工作方式

How do people make Bitcoin, and why is blockchain changing how we work online?

人们如何制作比特币,为什么区块链会改变我们的在线工作方式?

You’ve probably heard of Bitcoin. At the end of 2017, a boom in the market made a lot of people very rich. In a matter of weeks the value of a single Bitcoin shot up from around £2,300 to almost £15,000 ($3,000 to $19,300). Some people who already owned Bitcoins became millionaires. Others scraped together savings to try and make a quick profit. But what is a Bitcoin?

你可能听说过比特币。2017年底,市场的繁荣让很多人变得非常富有。在短短几周内,比特币的价值就从2300英镑飙升至15000英镑(3000美元到19300美元)。一些已经拥有比特币的人成了百万富翁。其他人凑起了积蓄试图快速获利。但什么是比特币?

It certainly isn’t something you can hold or keep in your purse. You can’t use it in a supermarket, and nobody is minting physical Bitcoins. That’s because it’s a digital currency, and one that can be ‘mined’ by using computers to solve mathematical puzzles. It’s all possible thanks to a technology called blockchain, which is Words by Stephen Ashby changing the way businesses and people around the world work. Bitcoin might be getting the headlines, but the cryptocurrency only exists thanks to blockchain. Let’s find out how it all works.

它当然不是你可以放在钱包里的东西。你不能在超市里使用它,也没有人在制造实物比特币。这是因为它是一种数字货币,可以通过使用计算机解决数学难题来“挖掘”。这一切都有可能归功于一个叫做区块链的技术,这是斯蒂芬阿什比的一句话改变了世界各地的商业和人的工作方式。比特币可能会占据新闻头条,但由于区块链的存在,这种加密技术才得以存在。让我们看看这一切是如何运作的。

BUILDING BLOCKS建筑砌块

We’ll start with blockchain, because it’s the basis upon which cryptocurrencies are built. There are all kinds of different uses for blockchain, and cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin are just one.

我们将从区块链开始,因为这是构建密码的基础。区块链有各种不同的用途,像比特币这样的加密技术只是其中之一。

A blockchain is basically a digital ledger. It lets people and businesses record transactions and track assets, and the records are all stored securely across multiple devices. An ‘asset’ could be anything from a car or a house to a patent or a copyrighted logo. The blockchain itself is shared between multiple users, and when a new transaction takes place it updates for everyone at the same time. Every transaction is logged and tracked across the whole network of connected users, so you can’t adjust anything later; the information is recorded for good.

区块链基本上是一个数字账。它允许人员和企业记录事务和跟踪资产,记录都安全地存储在多个设备上。“资产”可以是汽车、房屋、专利或有版权标志的任何东西。区块链本身是在多个用户之间共享的,当一个新的事务发生时,它会同时为每个人更新。每个事务都会被记录并在整个网络中进行跟踪,所以你不能在以后调整任何东西;这些信息会被永久地记录下来。

But why is this useful? To understand, let’s look at blockchain being used in the context of buying a house. The process involves lots of people. It starts with the builder, who buys the land from someone. The builder gets planning permission, puts a house on the site and registers the address to be connected to the water, gas and electricity supplies, as well as the phone line. Then, when it’s finished,the builder finds a buyer. The ownership is transferred in exchange for money.

但这为什么有用呢?为了理解,让我们来看看区块链在购买房子时的使用情况。这个过程涉及很多人。它开始于建造者,他从某人那里购买土地。建筑商得到了规划许可,在工地上盖了一所房子,并登记了要连接水、煤气和电力供应以及电话线的地址。然后,当它完成后,建造者找到一个买家。所有权转移以换取金钱。

Without blockchain, all of this information, from the land ownership details to the final price and utility information, would have to be recorded by separate companies – the electricity, gas and water companies, for example. It would therefore all be in different places, and for the buyer, getting hold of it all could be difficult and time-consuming. Plus, if there are any mistakes along the way it could cause problems later as everyone tries to work out where an error was made.

没有区块链,所有这些信息,从土地所有权细节到最终价格和公用事业信息,都必须由不同的公司——例如电力、天然气和水务公司——记录。因此,所有这一切都将在不同的地方,而对于买方来说,获得所有这一切都将是困难和耗时的。另外,如果有任何错误的道路上,它可能会导致以后的问题,因为每个人都试图找出错误发生了。

Now, let’s think about how blockchain could improve the process. At each point in the chain a new block would be created in the blockchain and added to the previous blocks.

现在,让我们想想区块链如何改进这个过程。在链中的每一点上,都将在块链中创建一个新的块,并将其添加到前面的块中。

The builder could add land registry information, planning documents and utility details. They could also add useful legal information, like who is responsible for fixing a fence if it falls down. Then, when the house is finished, the buyer could get access to the blockchain and see all of the information that they need about the house in one secure place.

建设者可以添加土地登记信息,规划文件和公用事业细节。他们还可以添加有用的法律信息,比如如果围栏倒塌,由谁负责修理。然后,当房子完工后,买家可以进入区块链,看到他们所需要的关于房子的所有信息在一个安全的地方。

In this way, one single chain of data can be created and shared easily with those that need it. If the buyer decides to sell the house later they have all the information they need, and the person buying it from them knows for a fact that all of the information is correct and legal because the blockchain cannot be edited or changed. It’s secure, and it makes every step of the process quicker and easier.

这样,一个单一的数据链就可以很容易地创建并与需要它的人共享。如果买家决定在以后出售房子,他们拥有他们需要的所有信息,而从他们那里购买的人也知道,所有信息都是正确和合法的,因为区块链是不能编辑或改变的。它是安全的,它使每一步的过程更快,更容易。

This is just one small example, but when you think about what this can mean for big businesses, where ordering parts or selling electronic products are an everyday occurrence, you can see why it’s changing the way people work.

这只是一个小例子,但是当你思考这对大公司意味着什么,在那里订购零件或销售电子产品是家常便饭,你可以看到为什么它会改变人们的工作方式。

WHAT ABOUT BITCOIN?? 比特币是什么?

While blockchain makes transactions like the one above safer, limits on currencies like dollars and pounds can still slow down the process of buying and selling. It costs money to transfer funds and it can take time for transfers to be approved. In business, wasted time is wasted money. 虽然区块链使上述交易更加安全,但对美元和英镑等货币的限制仍可能减缓买卖过程。转移资金是需要资金的,要经过一段时间才能获得批准。在商业中,浪费时间就是浪费金钱。

Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin aren’t like normal currencies. There’s no central bank that controls them. Instead, powerful computers can solve complex mathematical puzzles to ‘mine’ coins over time. And, unlike normal currencies (which banks can just print more of)there’s a limited number of Bitcoin that can ever be produced. On million will ever exist, and only a small number of new coins can be mined every hour. The rate at which they appear w reduce slowly until no more can be minded .

像比特币这样的密码并不像正常的货币。没有中央银行来控制他们。相反,强大的计算机可以解决复杂的数学难题,以’我的’硬币随着时间。而且,与普通货币(银行只能打印更多的)不同,比特币的数量是有限的,可以被生产出来。百万枚硬币将永远存在,而且每小时只能开采少量的新硬币。它们出现的速率慢慢地降低,直到不再能想到为止。

It’s all possible thanks to blockchain,the Bitcoin chain logs how much any person has and this is securely shared across the world. You can’t just change your records to say you have more Bitcoin than you do – the blockchain keeps a clear record that’s constantly updated.

这都是可能的,多亏区块链,比特币链记录了任何人拥有多少,这在全世界都是安全共享的。你不能只改变你的记录,说你有比你更多的比特币。区块链保持一个清晰的记录,并不断地更新。

In the house example above, a private blockchain would be used. Only users that have been invited to join the chain would have access to the blocks and be able to see the data. Some people in the chain, such as the estate agent, would only be granted permission to see a limited amount of information in the chain.

在上面的房子例子中,将使用一个私有区块链。只有被邀请加入链的用户才能访问这些数据块,并能够看到数据。链中的一些人,例如房地产经纪人,只被允许查看链中数量有限的信息。

The Bitcoin network is open, so the integrity of transactions can be easily monitored. It also keeps transfers more private because there is no need for identity checks. When someone submits a transaction, the network protocol looks back through the previous transactions for that currency to confirm the sender has enough Bitcoin and the authority to send them. If they do, the transaction can go through.

比特币网络是开放的,因此交易的完整性可以很容易地监控。它还使转账更加保密,因为不需要进行身份检查。当某人提交交易时,网络协议会查看以前的交易,以确认发送者是否有足够的比特币,以及发送比特币的权限。如果他们这样做,交易可以通过。

This might sound shady, but in reality, a unique wallet helps to identify users, and law enforcement can use this ID to track users if needed. Plus, most transactions need to have an identifier logged with the transfer by law, and because this is recorded on an open network it makes Bitcoin a less-than-ideal currency for criminals.

这听起来可能有点可疑,但实际上,一个独特的钱包有助于识别用户,如果需要,执法部门可以使用这个ID来跟踪用户。此外,大多数交易都需要有一个以法律记录的身份识别码,而且因为这是在一个开放的网络上记录的,这使得比特币对罪犯来说并不是一种理想的货币。

Finally, like all transfers that are made through blockchain, it is not possible to edit or reverse a transaction once it is completed. In fact, the only way to undo a transaction is to fulfill the identical transaction in the opposite direction. In that case, both transactions would be fully tracked in the chain for everyone to see. It makes cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin an extremely secure way to trade.

最后,与通过块链进行的所有传输一样,一旦事务完成,也不可能编辑或撤销事务。事实上,撤销事务的唯一方法是以相反的方向完成相同的事务。在这种情况下,两个事务将在链中被完全跟踪,让每个人都能看到。这使得像比特币这样的加密货币成为一种极其安全的交易方式。

There are lots of types of cryptocurrency, but Bitcoin is certainly the biggest, and while it isn’t the only use for blockchain, it’s definitely the most well known. However, blockchain technology has huge potential, and many businesses are already using it to make fast, secure transactions. Whether it will become something that normal people use every day remains to be seen, but it certainly has the potential to change the way we live.

加密货币有很多种,但比特币无疑是最大的,虽然比特币并不是区块链的唯一用途,但它肯定是最广为人知的。然而,区块链技术具有巨大的潜力,许多企业已经在使用它来进行快速、安全的交易。它是否会成为普通人每天都在使用的东西,还有待观察,但它肯定有可能改变我们的生活方式。

What is Bitcoin ‘mining’? 比特币的‘挖掘’是什么?

We’ve already mentioned that Bitcoins can be obtained by ‘mining’, but what does that mean? Well, mining is just a way of saying a computer is using its power to help create information on the blockchain.

我们已经提到过,比特币可以通过“采矿”获得,但这意味着什么呢?嗯,挖掘只是一种表示计算机正在使用它的力量来帮助在区块链上创建信息的一种方式。

Let’s say that ten Bitcoin transactions are happening across the world at once.

假设有10个比特币交易正在全世界同时发生。

All of those transactions need to be checked against the blockchain, the identity needs to be confirmed, and then the whole blockchain needs to be updated across every computer in the network. That takes a lot of computational power. Bitcoin ‘miners’ lend their computing power to this task to help the network function, and when they do they also work towards unlocking a new Bitcoin, which is added to their account. This can take a while, and you need a powerful computer or a customised mining rig to be able to earn a lot of Bitcoins

所有这些事务都需要与区块链进行检查,身份需要得到确认,然后整个区块链都需要跨网络中的每台计算机进行更新。这需要很多计算能力。比特币“矿工”将他们的计算能力借给这项任务,以帮助网络功能,当他们这样做的时候,他们也会努力解锁一个新的比特币,并把比特币添加到他们的账户中。这可能需要一些时间,你需要一台功能强大的电脑或定制的采矿设备,才能赚到很多比特币。

How is cryptocurrency different from normal money?

加密货币与普通货币有什么不同?

NORMAL:普通货币

  1. The economy of the country that issues the currency, as well as products and services发行货币以及产品和服务的国家的经济
  2. A central bank (such as the Bank of England)中央银行(如英格兰银行)
  3. Up to several days 最多几天
  4. Up to two or three per cent of the total transfer最高占总调动额的百分之二或百分之三
  5. A charge back can be made if a payment is disputed如果付款有争议,可以退款
  6. Yes, cash is printed and banks can choose to print more if they want more in circulation是的,现金是印刷的,如果银行希望获得更多的发行量,他们可以选择印制更多的钞票

Cryptocurrency加密货币

  1. A consensus of all use as products and services作为产品和服务的各种用途的共识
  2. Mathematics and co around the world全世界的数学和计算机公司
  3. A matter of minuets几分钟
  4. Less than 1p 小于1p
  5. Once the transaction is complete you can’t edit or reverse it. Every part of it is recorded securely一旦交易完成,你就不能编辑或撤销它。一切都被记录下来。
  6. No, it is a digital currency and there is only a limited amount of it – no more will be made不,它是一种数字货币,而且数量有限,不会再制造了。